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US-Andean countries

In May 2004, the US began negotiations with Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to reach some form of FTA with the three Andean countries — and later, if US plans worked out, Bolivia as well.

According to initial media reports, “There are three different scenarios under discussion about how to structure the free trade agreement with the US. The first would be one plurilateral agreement between the four countries. The second would be individual bilateral agreements between the US and each of the three Andean countries. The third would be an agreement between the three Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members, who have obligations within CAN, and the US. The US prefers the arrangement used in the CAFTA agreement, i.e. one plurilateral agreement among all parties. This option is not viable through CAN because not all CAN members are involved in this FTA process with the US. Therefore, according to the head of the Colombian delegation, what may emerge is a plurilateral agreement between the US and a special bloc comprising Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.“

Since then, a number of special tensions have marked these FTA discussions. One is that the Andean countries have been reluctant to go beyond their WTO obligations in terms of intellectual property rights. The governments have kept expressing strong concerns about biodiversity, traditional knowledge, and access to medicines. Another overwhelming concern has been with regard to agriculture, where the Andean countries are reluctant to liberalize their markets on bilateral terms if the US will not agree to reduce domestic subsidies. An underlying concern has been how the FTA would interact with Andean Community law; that is, which of the two would take precedence.
Regarding the US side, Washington’s lack of flexibility has been pointed out by many as a hallmark of the process. For that reason, many people refuse to call these “negotiations“.

Indigenous peoples, farmers’ organizations, labour unions, and other social movements have been heavily mobilizing to stop this FTA. The FTA has been seen from the start as a thorough capitulation to US economic and geopolitical interests. In Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, different sectors have pushed for national referenda on the FTA in their respective countries — and on several occasions organized their own.

In late September 2005, the US issued an ultimatum to sign an agreement by 20 November 2005 — before the 2006 electoral process in all three Andean countries and the mid-2007 expiry of Bush’s “fast track“ trade negotiating authority. No agreement was reached by end November, with Colombia and Ecuador holding back on several grounds and Peru saying it would proceed alone.

Since Peru signed a bilateral trade deal with the US in December 2005 and bilateral negotiations continuing with Colombia as of that date (until the US-Colombia deal came into force in March 2012), information on subsequent events is presented separately under US-Peru and US-Colombia.

As to Ecuador, Quito’s cancellation of a contract with Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) in May 2006 sounded the death knell for negotiations around a US-Ecuador FTA. With this decision, the government of Ecuador obeyed its law and the demands of the majority of Ecuadorans, who had been calling for an end to the negotiations and for Oxy’s departure.

last update: May 2012

House approves trade pact extension
The US House of Representatives on Wednesday approved a 10-month extension of a trade program aimed at promoting imports from four Andean nations and thus discouraging the cultivation and production of illegal drugs.
House panel extends Andean trade pact
A US House panel on Thursday approved a 10-month extension for a trade program providing reduced tariffs for exports from the four Andean nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
Ecuador rules out FTA with US
Ecuadorean Foreign Minister Maria Isabel Salvador ruled out a Free Trade Agreement with the United States but defended a commercial deal with that country.
Correa warns on dangers of FTA with US
Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa said that the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) are tremendously danger and a problem for our countries.
Correa Warns on Dangers of FTA with US
Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa said that the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) are tremendously danger and a problem for our countries.
Andean trade preferences need to be extended after Feb - USTR
The trade preferences granted to Andean countries by the US will need to be extended after February 2008 even if free trade agreements with Peru and Colombia designed to replace the preferences are approved, US Trade Representative Susan Schwab said late Saturday in Bogota.
Using Chávez as counterpoint, Bush pursues Latin trade pacts
The Bush administration has enlisted an unlikely ally in its international trade agenda: Hugo Chávez, the leftist president of Venezuela, who makes a practice of denouncing United States’ influence in Latin America.
Saying no to free trade
The US Congress has postponed discussion of free-trade agreements (FTAs) signed with Peru and Panama for several months, while indicating that it will not consider the accord with Colombia at all at this time. This represents a huge setback for the Colombian government of President Alvaro Uribe, who has invested much political capital in his strong alliance with Washington and in promoting a bilateral trade agreement.
Ecuador official slams free trade
Ecuador’s foreign minister said Monday it will insist on protecting national production if it resumes talks for a long-term trade agreement with the United States.
US House OKs 8-month Andean trade benefit extension
The U.S. House of Representatives on Wednesday approved an eight-month extension of long-standing trade benefits for Andean countries, potentially setting the stage for approval of a free trade pact with Peru and a contentious debate on a deal with Colombia.